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ⓘ Writing system. A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writ ..



                                               

Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns, octets, natural numbers, electrical pulses, etc. A character encoding is used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual data. "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and "code page" are related, but not identical, terms. Early character codes associated with the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the characte ...

                                               

Allography

In the Chinese script, there exist several graphemes that have more than one written representation. Chinese typefaces often contain many variants of some graphemes. Different regional standards have adopted certain character variants. For instance:

                                               

Linear A

Linear A is a writing system used by the Minoans from 1800 to 1450 BCE to write the hypothesized Minoan language. Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. It was succeeded by Linear B, which was used by the Mycenaeans to write an early form of Greek. No texts in Linear A have been deciphered. Linear A belongs to a group of scripts that evolved independently of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian systems. During the second millennium BCE, there were four major branches: Linear A, Linear B ...

                                               

Indus script

The Indus script is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system. In spite of many attempts, the script has not yet been deciphered, but efforts are ongoing. There is no known bilingual inscription to help decipher the script, and the script shows no significant changes over time. However, some of the syntax varies depending upon location. The first publication of a seal ...

                                               

Tangut script

The Tangut script was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia dynasty. According to the latest count, 5863 Tangut characters are known, excluding variants. The Tangut characters are similar in appearance to Chinese characters, with the same type of strokes, but the methods of forming characters in the Tangut writing system are significantly different from those of forming Chinese characters. As in Chinese calligraphy, regular, running, cursive and seal scripts were used in Tangut writing. According to the History of Song 1346, the scrip ...

                                               

Basic Latin (Unicode block)

The Basic Latin or C0 Controls and Basic Latin Unicode block is the first block of the Unicode standard, and the only block which is encoded in one byte in UTF-8. The block contains all the letters and control codes of the ASCII encoding. It ranges from U+0000 to U+007F, contains 128 characters and includes the C0 controls, ASCII punctuation and symbols, ASCII digits, both the uppercase and lowercase of the English alphabet and a control character. The Basic Latin block was included in its present form from version 1.0.0 of the Unicode Standard, without addition or alteration of the charac ...

                                               

Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic-, Turkic- and Iranic-speaking countries in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Northern Asia. In the 9th century AD the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I the Great, following the cultural and political course of his father Boris I, commissioned a new script, the Early Cyrillic alphabet, to be made at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire, which would replace the Glagolitic script, produced earlier by Saints Cyril and Methodius and the ...

Writing system
                                     

ⓘ Writing system

A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. Writing systems require shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. Reading a text can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, or expressed orally.

Writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies, although any particular system may have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, a standard set of letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora. In a logography, each character represents a semantic unit such as a word or morpheme. Abjads differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and in abugidas or alphasyllabaries each character represents a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets typically use a set of less than 100 symbols to fully express a language, whereas syllabaries can have several hundred, and logographies can have thousands of symbols. Many writing systems also include a special set of symbols known as punctuation which is used to aid interpretation and help capture nuances and variations in the messages meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, tone, accent, inflection or intonation.

Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms, ideograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a full range of thoughts and ideas. The invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner that was not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication.

                                     

1. General properties

Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings, paintings, and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related. Some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are also not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are often used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are often used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems.

Every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven and slow. Once established, writing systems generally change more slowly than their spoken counterparts. Thus they often preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language.

All writing systems require:

  • at least one set of rules and conventions orthography understood and shared by a community, which assigns meaning to the base elements graphemes, their ordering and relations to one another;
  • at least one language generally spoken whose constructions are represented and can be recalled by the interpretation of these elements and rules;
  • some physical means of distinctly representing the symbols by application to a permanent or semi-permanent medium, so they may be interpreted usually visually, but tactile systems have also been devised.
  • at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script ;
                                     

2. Basic terminology

In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field.

                                     

2.1. Basic terminology Text, writing, reading and orthography

The generic term text refers to an instance of written or spoken material with the latter having been transcribed in some way. The act of composing and recording a text may be referred to as writing, and the act of viewing and interpreting the text as reading. Orthography refers to the method and rules of observed writing structure literal meaning, "correct writing", and particularly for alphabetic systems, includes the concept of spelling.

                                     

2.2. Basic terminology Grapheme and phoneme

A grapheme is a specific base unit of a writing system. Graphemes are the minimally significant elements which taken together comprise the set of "building blocks" out of which texts made up of one or more writing systems may be constructed, along with rules of correspondence and use. The concept is similar to that of the phoneme used in the study of spoken languages. For example, in the Latin-based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the majuscule and minuscule forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet corresponding to various phonemes, marks of punctuation mostly non-phonemic, and a few other symbols such as those for numerals logograms for numbers.

An individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme. These individual variations are known as allographs of a grapheme compare with the term allophone used in linguistic study. For example, the minuscule letter a has different allographs when written as a cursive, block, or typed letter. The choice of a particular allograph may be influenced by the medium used, the writing instrument, the stylistic choice of the writer, the preceding and following graphemes in the text, the time available for writing, the intended audience, and the largely unconscious features of an individuals handwriting.



                                     

2.3. Basic terminology Glyph, sign and character

The terms glyph, sign and character are sometimes used to refer to a grapheme. Common usage varies from discipline to discipline; compare cuneiform sign, Maya glyph, Chinese character. The glyphs of most writing systems are made up of lines or strokes and are therefore called linear, but there are glyphs in non-linear writing systems made up of other types of marks, such as Cuneiform and Braille.

                                     

2.4. Basic terminology Complete and partial writing systems

Writing systems may be regarded as complete according to the extent to which they are able to represent all that may be expressed in the spoken language, while a partial writing system is limited in what it can convey.

                                     

2.5. Basic terminology Writing systems, languages and conceptual systems

Writing systems can be independent from languages, one can have multiple writing systems for a language, e.g., Hindi and Urdu; and one can also have one writing system for multiple languages, e.g., the Arabic script. Chinese characters were also borrowed by variant countries as their early writing systems, e.g., the early writing systems of Vietnamese language until the beginning of the 20th century.

To represent a conceptual system, one uses one or more languages, e.g., mathematics is a conceptual system and one may use first-order logic and a natural language together in representation.

                                     

3. History

Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols. The best known examples are:

  • Vinca symbols Tartaria tablets, c. 5300 BC
  • Nsibidi script, c. before 500 AD
  • Early Indus script, c. 3500 BC.
  • Jiahu symbols, carved on tortoise shells in Jiahu, c. 6600 BC

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic of the late 4th millennium BC. The Sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400 to 3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. It is generally agreed that Sumerian writing was an independent invention; however, it is debated whether Egyptian writing was developed completely independently of Sumerian, or was a case of cultural diffusion.

A similar debate exists for the Chinese script, which developed around 1200 BC. Chinese script is probably an independent invention, because there is no evidence of contact between China and the literate civilizations of the Near East, and because of the distinct differences between the Mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography and phonetic representation.

The pre-Columbian Mesoamerican writing systems including among others Olmec and Maya scripts are generally believed to have had independent origins.

A hieroglyphic writing system used by pre-colonial Mikmaq, that was observed by missionaries from the 17th to 19th centuries, is thought to have developed independently. Although, there is some debate over whether or not this was a fully formed system or just a series of mnemonic pictographs.

It is thought that the first consonantal alphabetic writing appeared before 2000 BC, as a representation of language developed by Semitic tribes in the Sinai-peninsula see History of the alphabet. Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet, or were directly inspired by its design.

The first true alphabet is the Greek script which consistently represents vowels since 800 BC. The Latin alphabet, a direct descendant, is by far the most common writing system in use.



                                     

4. Functional classification

Several approaches have been taken to classify writing systems, the most common and basic one is a broad division into three categories: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic or segmental; however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely. The term complex system is sometimes used to describe those where the admixture makes classification problematic. Modern linguists regard such approaches, including Diringers

  • alphabetic script
  • analytic transitional script
  • pictographic script
  • ideographic script
  • phonetic script

as too simplistic, often considering the categories to be incomparable. Hill split writing into three major categories of linguistic analysis, one of which covers discourses and is not usually considered writing proper:

  • conventional discourse system, e.g. Quipu
  • iconic discourse system, e.g. Amerindian
  • discourse system
  • morpho-phonemic writing system, e.g. German, Modern English
  • phonemic writing system, e.g. Ancient Greek, Old English
  • poly-phonemic writing system, e.g. Linear B, Kana, Cherokee
  • morphemic writing system, e.g. Egyptian, Sumerian, Maya, Chinese
  • mono-phonemic writing system
  • phonemic writing system
  • partial phonemic writing system, e.g. Egyptian, Hebrew, Arabic

Sampson draws a distinction between semasiography and glottography

  • semasiography, relating visible marks to meaning directly without reference to any specific spoken language
  • glottography, using visible marks to represent forms of a spoken language
  • phonography, achieving the same goal by assigning marks to elements of the "second articulation", e.g. phonemes, syllables
  • logography, representing a spoken language by assigning distinctive visible marks to linguistic elements of Andre Martinets "first articulation" Martinet 1949, i.e. morphemes or words

DeFrancis, criticizing Sampsons introduction of semasiographic writing and featural alphabets stresses the phonographic quality of writing proper

  • morpho-consonantal, e.g. Egyptian
  • pictures
  • pure consonantal, e.g. Phoenician
  • morpho-syllabic, e.g. Sumerian, Chinese, Mayan
  • alphabetic
  • writing
  • syllabic systems
  • nonwriting
  • rebus
  • pure phonemic, e.g. Greek
  • morpho-phonemic, e.g. English
  • consonantal
  • pure syllabic, e.g. Linear B, Yi, Kana, Cherokee

Faber categorizes phonographic writing by two levels, linearity and coding:

  • logographic, e.g. Chinese, Ancient Egyptian
  • syllabically coded, e.g. Kana, Akkadian
  • phonographic
  • syllabically linear
  • segmentally coded, e.g. Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopian, Amharic, Devanagari
  • segmentally linear
  • complete alphabet, e.g. Greco-Latin, Cyrillic
  • defective, e.g. Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, Old South Arabian, Paleo-Hebrew
                                     

4.1. Functional classification Logographic systems

A logogram is a single written character which represents a complete grammatical word. Most traditional Chinese characters are classified as logograms.

As each character represents a single word, many logograms are required to write all the words of language. The vast array of logograms and the memorization of what they mean are major disadvantages of logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, since the meaning is inherent to the symbol, the same logographic system can theoretically be used to represent different languages. In practice, the ability to communicate across languages only works for the closely related varieties of Chinese, as differences in syntax reduce the crosslinguistic portability of a given logographic system. Japanese uses Chinese logograms extensively in its writing systems, with most of the symbols carrying the same or similar meanings. However, the grammatical differences between Japanese and Chinese are significant enough that a long Chinese text is not readily understandable to a Japanese reader without any knowledge of basic Chinese grammar, though short and concise phrases such as those on signs and newspaper headlines are much easier to comprehend.

While most languages do not use wholly logographic writing systems, many languages use some logograms. A good example of modern western logograms are the Arabic numerals: everyone who uses those symbols understands what 1 means whether they call it one, eins, uno, yi, ichi, ehad, ena, or jedan. Other western logograms include the ampersand &, used for and, the at sign, used in many contexts for at, the percent sign % and the many signs representing units of currency $, ¢, €, £, ¥ and so on.

Logograms are sometimes called ideograms, a word that refers to symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas, but linguists avoid this use, as Chinese characters are often semantic–phonetic compounds, symbols which include an element that represents the meaning and a phonetic complement element that represents the pronunciation. Some nonlinguists distinguish between lexigraphy and ideography, where symbols in lexigraphies represent words and symbols in ideographies represent words or morphemes.

The most important modern logographic writing system is the Chinese one, whose characters have been used with varying degrees of modification in varieties of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and other east Asian languages. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Mayan writing system are also systems with certain logographic features, although they have marked phonetic features as well and are no longer in current use. Vietnamese speakers switched to the Latin alphabet in the 20th century and the use of Chinese characters in Korean is increasingly rare. The Japanese writing system includes several distinct forms of writing including logography.



                                     

4.2. Functional classification Syllabic systems: syllabary

Another type of writing system with systematic syllabic linear symbols, the abugidas, is discussed below as well.

As logographic writing systems use a single symbol for an entire word, a syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent or approximate syllables, which make up words. A symbol in a syllabary typically represents a consonant sound followed by a vowel sound, or just a vowel alone.

In a "true syllabary", there is no systematic graphic similarity between phonetically related characters though some do have graphic similarity for the vowels. That is, the characters for /ke, /ka/ and /ko/ have no similarity to indicate their common "k" sound voiceless velar plosive. More recent creations such as the Cree syllabary embody a system of varying signs, which can best be seen when arranging the syllabogram set in an onset–coda or onset–rime table.

Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. The English language, on the other hand, allows complex syllable structures, with a relatively large inventory of vowels and complex consonant clusters, making it cumbersome to write English words with a syllabary. To write English using a syllabary, every possible syllable in English would have to have a separate symbol, and whereas the number of possible syllables in Japanese is around 100, in English there are approximately 15.000 to 16.000.

However, syllabaries with much larger inventories do exist. The Yi script, for example, contains 756 different symbols. The Chinese script, when used to write Middle Chinese and the modern varieties of Chinese, also represents syllables, and includes separate glyphs for nearly all of the many thousands of syllables in Middle Chinese; however, because it primarily represents morphemes and includes different characters to represent homophonous morphemes with different meanings, it is normally considered a logographic script rather than a syllabary.

Other languages that use true syllabaries include Mycenaean Greek Linear B and Indigenous languages of the Americas such as Cherokee. Several languages of the Ancient Near East used forms of cuneiform, which is a syllabary with some non-syllabic elements.

                                     

4.3. Functional classification Segmental systems: alphabets

An alphabet is a small set of letters basic written symbols, each of which roughly represents or represented historically a segmental phoneme of a spoken language. The word alphabet is derived from alpha and beta, the first two symbols of the Greek alphabet.

The first type of alphabet that was developed was the abjad. An abjad is an alphabetic writing system where there is one symbol per consonant. Abjads differ from other alphabets in that they have characters only for consonantal sounds. Vowels are not usually marked in abjads.

All known abjads except maybe Tifinagh belong to the Semitic family of scripts, and derive from the original Northern Linear Abjad. The reason for this is that Semitic languages and the related Berber languages have a morphemic structure which makes the denotation of vowels redundant in most cases.

Some abjads, like Arabic and Hebrew, have markings for vowels as well. However, they use them only in special contexts, such as for teaching. Many scripts derived from abjads have been extended with vowel symbols to become full alphabets. Of these, the most famous example is the derivation of the Greek alphabet from the Phoenician abjad. This has mostly happened when the script was adapted to a non-Semitic language.

The term abjad takes its name from the old order of the Arabic alphabets consonants alif, bā, jīm, dāl, though the word may have earlier roots in Phoenician or Ugaritic. "Abjad" is still the word for alphabet in Arabic, Malay and Indonesian.

An abugida is an alphabetic writing system whose basic signs denote consonants with an inherent vowel and where consistent modifications of the basic sign indicate other following vowels than the inherent one.

Thus, in an abugida there may or may not be a sign for "k" with no vowel, but also one for "ka" if "a" is the inherent vowel, and "ke" is written by modifying the "ka" sign in a way that is consistent with how one would modify "la" to get "le". In many abugidas the modification is the addition of a vowel sign, but other possibilities are imaginable and used, such as rotation of the basic sign, addition of diacritical marks and so on.

The contrast with "true syllabaries" is that the latter have one distinct symbol per possible syllable, and the signs for each syllable have no systematic graphic similarity. The graphic similarity of most abugidas comes from the fact that they are derived from abjads, and the consonants make up the symbols with the inherent vowel and the new vowel symbols are markings added on to the base symbol.

In the Geez script, for which the linguistic term abugida was named, the vowel modifications do not always appear systematic, although they originally were more so. Canadian Aboriginal syllabics can be considered abugidas, although they are rarely thought of in those terms. The largest single group of abugidas is the Brahmic family of scripts, however, which includes nearly all the scripts used in India and Southeast Asia.

The name abugida is derived from the first four characters of an order of the Geez script used in some contexts. It was borrowed from Ethiopian languages as a linguistic term by Peter T. Daniels.

                                     

4.4. Functional classification Featural systems

A featural script represents finer detail than an alphabet. Here symbols do not represent whole phonemes, but rather the elements features that make up the phonemes, such as voicing or its place of articulation. Theoretically, each feature could be written with a separate letter; and abjads or abugidas, or indeed syllabaries, could be featural, but the only prominent system of this sort is Korean hangul. In hangul, the featural symbols are combined into alphabetic letters, and these letters are in turn joined into syllabic blocks, so that the system combines three levels of phonological representation.

Many scholars, e.g. John DeFrancis, reject this class or at least labeling hangul as such. The Korean script is a conscious script creation by literate experts, which Daniels calls a "sophisticated grammatogeny". These include stenographies and constructed scripts of hobbyists and fiction writers such as Tengwar, many of which feature advanced graphic designs corresponding to phonologic properties. The basic unit of writing in these systems can map to anything from phonemes to words. It has been shown that even the Latin script has sub-character "features".

                                     

4.5. Functional classification Ambiguous systems

Most writing systems are not purely one type. The English writing system, for example, includes numerals and other logograms such as #, $, and &, and the written language often does not match well with the spoken one. As mentioned above, all logographic systems have phonetic components as well, whether along the lines of a syllabary, such as Chinese "logo-syllabic", or an abjad, as in Egyptian "logo-consonantal".

Some scripts, however, are truly ambiguous. The semi-syllabaries of ancient Spain were syllabic for plosives such as p, t, k, but alphabetic for other consonants. In some versions, vowels were written redundantly after syllabic letters, conforming to an alphabetic orthography. Old Persian cuneiform was similar. Of 23 consonants including null, seven were fully syllabic, thirteen were purely alphabetic, and for the other three, there was one letter for /C u / and another for both /C a / and /C i /. However, all vowels were written overtly regardless; as in the Brahmic abugidas, the /C a / letter was used for a bare consonant.

The zhuyin phonetic glossing script for Chinese divides syllables in two or three, but into onset, medial, and rime rather than consonant and vowel. Pahawh Hmong is similar, but can be considered to divide syllables into either onset-rime or consonant-vowel all consonant clusters and diphthongs are written with single letters; as the latter, it is equivalent to an abugida but with the roles of consonant and vowel reversed. Other scripts are intermediate between the categories of alphabet, abjad and abugida, so there may be disagreement on how they should be classified.

                                     

5. Graphic classification

Perhaps the primary graphic distinction made in classifications is that of linearity. Linear writing systems are those in which the characters are composed of lines, such as the Latin alphabet and Chinese characters. Chinese characters are considered linear whether they are written with a ball-point pen or a calligraphic brush, or cast in bronze. Similarly, Egyptian hieroglyphs and Maya glyphs were often painted in linear outline form, but in formal contexts they were carved in bas-relief. The earliest examples of writing are linear: the Sumerian script of c. 3300 BC was linear, though its cuneiform descendants were not. Non-linear systems, on the other hand, such as braille, are not composed of lines, no matter what instrument is used to write them.

Cuneiform was probably the earliest non-linear writing. Its glyphs were formed by pressing the end of a reed stylus into moist clay, not by tracing lines in the clay with the stylus as had been done previously. The result was a radical transformation of the appearance of the script.

Braille is a non-linear adaptation of the Latin alphabet that completely abandoned the Latin forms. The letters are composed of raised bumps on the writing substrate, which can be leather Louis Brailles original material, stiff paper, plastic or metal.

There are also transient non-linear adaptations of the Latin alphabet, including Morse code, the manual alphabets of various sign languages, and semaphore, in which flags or bars are positioned at prescribed angles. However, if "writing" is defined as a potentially permanent means of recording information, then these systems do not qualify as writing at all, since the symbols disappear as soon as they are used. Instead, these transient systems serve as signals.

                                     

6. Directionality

Scripts are also graphically characterized by the direction in which they are written. Egyptian hieroglyphs were written either left to right or right to left, with the animal and human glyphs turned to face the beginning of the line. The early alphabet could be written in multiple directions: horizontally side to side, or vertically up or down. Prior to standardization, alphabetical writing was done both left-to-right LTR or sinistrodextrally and right-to-left RTL or dextrosinistrally. It was most commonly written boustrophedonically: starting in one horizontal direction, then turning at the end of the line and reversing direction.

The Greek alphabet and its successors settled on a left-to-right pattern, from the top to the bottom of the page. Other scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew, came to be written right-to-left. Scripts that incorporate Chinese characters have traditionally been written vertically top-to-bottom, from the right to the left of the page, but nowadays are frequently written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, due to Western influence, a growing need to accommodate terms in the Latin script, and technical limitations in popular electronic document formats. Chinese characters sometimes, as in signage, especially when signifying something old or traditional, may also be written from right to left. The Old Uyghur alphabet and its descendants are unique in being written top-to-bottom, left-to-right; this direction originated from an ancestral Semitic direction by rotating the page 90° counter-clockwise to conform to the appearance of vertical Chinese writing. Several scripts used in the Philippines and Indonesia, such as Hanunoo, are traditionally written with lines moving away from the writer, from bottom to top, but are read horizontally left to right; however, Kulitan, another Philippine script, is written top to bottom and right to left. Ogham is written bottom to top and read vertically, commonly on the corner of a stone.

                                     

7. On computers

In computers and telecommunication systems, writing systems are generally not codified as such, but graphemes and other grapheme-like units that are required for text processing are represented by "characters" that typically manifest in encoded form. There are many character encoding standards and related technologies, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1 a character repertoire and encoding scheme oriented toward the Latin script, CJK and bi-directional text. Today, many such standards are re-defined in a collective standard, the ISO/IEC 10646 "Universal Character Set", and a parallel, closely related expanded work, The Unicode Standard. Both are generally encompassed by the term Unicode. In Unicode, each character, in every languages writing system, is simplifying slightly given a unique identification number, known as its code point. Computer operating systems use code points to look up characters in the font file, so the characters can be displayed on the page or screen.

A keyboard is the device most commonly used for writing via computer. Each key is associated with a standard code which the keyboard sends to the computer when it is pressed. By using a combination of alphabetic keys with modifier keys such as Ctrl, Alt, Shift and AltGr, various character codes are generated and sent to the CPU. The operating system intercepts and converts those signals to the appropriate characters based on the keyboard layout and input method, and then delivers those converted codes and characters to the running application software, which in turn looks up the appropriate glyph in the currently used font file, and requests the operating system to draw these on the screen.

                                     
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  • Proto - writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information. Such systems emerged from earlier traditions of symbol systems in the early
  • The writing systems of Africa refer to the current and historical practice of writing systems on the African continent, both indigenous and those introduced
  • In a featural writing system the shapes of the symbols such as letters are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they
  • There are various non - Latin - based writing systems of Southeast Asia. The writing systems below are listed by language family. Khmer script for Khmer language
  • in a similar manner to a floppy disk from within the operating system Packet writing allows users to create, modify, and delete files and directories
                                     
  • known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially
  • normally nasals at the end of syllables are also found in syllabaries. A writing system using a syllabary is complete when it covers all syllables in the corresponding
  • Pre - Christian Slavic writing is a hypothesized writing system that may have been used by the Slavs prior to Christianization and the introduction of the
  • Sutton Sign Writing or simply, Sign Writing is a system of writing sign languages. It is highly featural and visually iconic, both in the shapes of the
  • characters on the left. Historically, vertical writing was the standard system and horizontal writing was only used where a sign had to fit in a constrained
  • Mixtec writing originated as a logographic writing system during the Post - Classic period in Mesoamerican history. Records of genealogy, historic events
  • describes the modern Okinawan writing system See the Okinawan language article for an overview of the language. For the writing systems in Ryukyuan languages
  • The Moon System of Embossed Reading commonly known as the Moon writing Moon alphabet, Moon script, Moon type, or Moon code is a writing system for the
  • A dictionary writing system DWS or dictionary production publishing system DPS is software for writing and producing a dictionary, glossary, vocabulary

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation

Travels with Henry James brings together 21 gems of travel writing.

Travel Writing So maybe the star system was inevitably suffocating, the studios making all of the decisions, creating gods out of mortals. But in this. Travel Blogging vs Travel Writing Everything Everywhere Travel Blog. Application saves, click Fill out Per Diem at this Location or Next to move on. NOTE: If you are doing back to back orders, annotate this in the Travel Special. Travel Writing Matt Koller. 5 Feb 2019 You can become a better writer with creative writing software. sheets and bulletin board like systems to arrange notes and writing elements. The Dream Buffet is Served! Dream of Travel Writing. Not surprisingly, travel writing has been a popular and influential literary genre and bounded system, which set off against other equally bounded systems.3 It.


Wish I Were There: The Life and Times of a Travel Writer Los.

Most leading French authors wrote travel books in the first half of the nineteenth century. This book is the first study exclusively devoted to surveying the. Putting their world on paper: Otherness in travel writing and. 18 Jun 2018 Travel writing and documentary as a genre is rather new, but has had that you begin to form a picture of how that place works as a system. The Best American Travel Writing 2013 Los Alamos County Library. 327 Travel Writing jobs available in Honolulu, HI on google - wiki.info. Apply to Freelance Writer, Medical Technician, Systems Administrator and more!.


Five expert tips for getting started in travel writing Lonely Planet.

In a captivating session on the Rajnigandha Front Lawns, the relevance of travel writing was discussed in our present times of internet, globalization, and. Tourism: Travel Writing and New Institutions. 20 May 2014 Tom Coote is a long haul travel writer. I usually take notes when I travel, with a view to possibly writing Whats your travel writing system?. The Best American Travel Writing 2016 by Bill Bryson Goodreads. 9 Aug 2013 So you say you want to be a travel writer? You want to wander the world, sending back tantalising tales of far flung adventures to magazines,. Best Selling Travel Writer Patricia Schultz On Why More Women. While a summer coastal getaway or lake retreat makes for a nice family vacation, the Pacific Northwest has a system of rivers that offer whitewater experiences.





Fuller & Jenkins: Nintendo and New World Travel Writing.

The best travel writing, as recommended by veteran British travel writer, Colin Thubron. And I think that system had a big effect. I was sent to boarding school. Global Nomadic hiring Volunteer: Environmental Travel LinkedIn. You enter the competition for Best Travel Story of the Year by choosing one or more The system doesnt allow submitting more than one story at a time. Best Travel Writing Submit. Our travel writing has been published dozens of times, including features in Our award winning project management system means efficiency, quick. MDS: 808.3 LibraryThing. 15 Apr 2018 There are over 370 writing systems or scripts in the world. Test your knowledge about different alphabets of the world in this alphabet quiz. The Allure of Travel Writing Travel Smithsonian. When I first dreamed of life as a travel writer, I wasnt sure how I would even be shockingly easy once you get your feet wet and you get used to the system. AlwaysOnVacation, Inc. Freelance Local Travel Writers Germany. 30 Dec 2016 Travels with Henry James brings together 21 gems of travel writing park system, which has protected scores of similar treasures across the.


How to Get Your Writing Done Every Day: The 3 Bucket System.

A great Meaningful Travel Writer needs previous writing experience for websites or He or she also needs to intimately know the school system in their home. Travel Writing The Writers for Hire. Dreaming up travel story ideas that sell dont come to you in your sleep. Here is my winning system with 7 ways to dream up stories that sell. Writes of Passage: Reading Travel Writing, 1999 Online Research. 16 Oct 2019 Travel writing became highly popular during the mid 1700s. institutions for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system. Share.





10 Publications That Will Pay You for Travel Writing Blog to.

General Guidelines Submit all work to our electronic submission system. essays on writing technique and process, memoir excerpts, travel writing, journalistic. Rhetoric and Wonder in English Travel Writing, 1560 Project MUSE. 5 Feb 2015 Finding freelance travel writing jobs can be difficult if you dont know where series of trial and error I seem to have found a system that works. Get 100 travel articles sold and take a dozen press Travel Writing. 20 Sep 2012 During a rare week of rest in New York City, Kugel spoke with Fast Company about his own career path, the future of travel writing, and his. Anthony Bourdain Inspired a New Generation of Food and Travel. This website presents a collection of travel writings by more than 25 female system while simultaneously reducing this complexity to bloody barbarism. Travel Writing Scholarship 2016 → FAQ World Nomads. The genre was called travel record literature youji wenxue, and was often written in narrative, prose, essay and diary style. One of the earliest known records of taking pleasure in travel, of travelling for the sake of travel and writing about it, is Petrarchs 1304–1374 ascent of Mount Ventoux in 1336.


Travel Writing Jobs Upwork.

Search Results. Browsing results matching Travel writing. Travel writing - Africa - Bibliography. 1. 4. Travel writing Travel writing - History - 18th century. 1. The Best Travel Writing Five Books Expert Recommendations. And experiences through the WWU Education Abroad Travel Writing Program! a content management system CMS based on PHP and MySQL Database. Anthony Bourdains contribution to travel writing a convenience. 2 Aug 2019 Travel writing is one of the most glamorous types of writing, and for good reason. Getting flown all over the world to stay in incredible hotels and.





Travel Writing vs. Travel Blogging Up&AtEm Travel.

My writings span from short stories on experiences Ive had while traveling to Posts tagged Travel Writing Notes from the Alaska Marine Highway System. Travel Writers Network Opportunities, Jobs, and Discounts for. 26 Apr 2016 The proposition that I attend the African Travel Writing Encounters ATWE workshop held at the University of Birmingham in the UK on a. 900 Travel Images: Download HD Pictures & Photos on Unsplash. Freelance travel writing is, without doubt, the dream job. You get to explore. In New York City, I use it constantly to navigate the subway system. Oh, and that. SHANE BOOCOCK Travel Writer For Hire. iTravelWriter. This article examines pilgrimage and travel writing in England during the medieval period. It explains that during this period, The Book of John Mandeville was. The Rise of Chinese Travel Writing UC Press E Books Collection. 24 Feb 2016 I saw an ad on the train for a travel writing competition, with a closing date How can an outsider ever truly understand the caste system, or the. Travel Writing 2.0 With Tim Leffel from The Creative Penn Podcast. 24 Jun 2019 The study of travel writing owes a great deal to theory – the critical. with the end of the Keynesian consensus in the global economic system.


Intercultural Exchange Through Travel Literature Analysis Eurasia.

2 Oct 2018 In travel writing its important to write with all of your senses, not just you also have a discriminative touch system based on the emotional. Smart Writing System Moleskine Official. 1 Jan 2010 Three Students Awarded Scholarships for MatadorU Travel Writing Course We are a 30 33 year old couple struggling against the system, we. Pilgrimages, Travel Writing, and the Medieval Exotic Oxford. 21 Jul 2017 The biggest difference between a travel writer and a travel blogger is where. They might use travel blogs as a sort of farm system for content. In Travel Writing, Even Vacation Is Work The New York Times. Results 1 9 Smart Writing System,Connect analog and digital. We travel from idea to action, from page to digital device, from work to play in the blink of an eye. LT 252 TRAVEL WRITING IN SPAIN EUROPE IES Abroad. Win a 10 day travel writing road trip across Australia. our stories by the paragraphs structure, but I still have a question about your text formatting system.





Freelance Travel Writing Finding a Niche within a Niche.

Being a travel writer can be difficult to break into, so the key to getting potential of the first English articles on the citys bus system for a travel site about China. The Jagged Career Path Of New York Times Travel Writer Seth Kugel. This podcast is sponsored by Kobo Writing Life, which helps authors self publish and reach readers in global markets through the Kobo eco system. You can. How Travel Writing Evolved Into Travel Blogging, and What Brands. An increasingly popular genre – addressing issues of empire, colonialism, post colonialism, globalization, gender and politics – travel writing offers the reader a.


A Mobile Writing Setup The Writing Cooperative.

Technologists speak of the navigational systems necessary to guide us through this uncharted realm. The advent of this new technological sphere meets the. Travel and Writing jstor. Read the full text online edition of Writes of Passage: Reading Travel Writing 1999. Writes of Passage explores the interplay between a system of othering. The Myth of the African travel writer Africa is a Country. Travel Writing with Walter Mason. Saturday 7th March The payment system below still works and allows you to pay using your credit card. Walter Mason is the.


Travel Writing A Lister Treatment On FAM Trips To Special.

10 Oct 2018 But ask any travel writer or influencer about their job, and theyll rush to. of so called influencers trick the system by liking and commenting on. Travel Writing Program. Since 1996 I have also been a freelance travel writer, photographer and travel. The websites provide journalists with the ultimate system to suit their needs,. Personality Types and Fiction Writing How to Use the 16 Type. Much of the work undertaken on the representation of others in travel writing and tion of his own system is then exactly what other Orientalist travel writers. A Lady In London: How I Made A Business Out Of Travel Writing. And writing and three system frameworks Present Practice Produce PPP, Test Teach Test The Four Skills Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing. Google - wiki.info award winners and nominees 2019 google - wiki.info. 13 Feb 2007 I envy business travelers for whom a business trip is a business trip, and a vacation is a vacation. As someone who edits a travel site, my. Meaningful Travel Writer Jobs Conservation Careers. 27 Dec 2018 We recently published 25 Travel Moments That Mattered in 2018, which highlights some of the outstanding work Skifts team of editors and.


Character encoding utf - 8.

ERROR: Encoding cannot represent character SWI Prolog. The IDL Workbench uses the UTF 8 character encoding by default. the UTF 8 encoding as its default means that if you open a file written using a different was created on a Windows system, you can also try the Windows 1252 encoding. Utf8 encode. Change character encoding pdf Dealsian. Of course, not all characters defined within the Latin script are used by all languages based on the Latin script for example, the English alphabet does not. Character encoding converter. Correct alphabetic name encoding for Unicode DICOM Standard. Windows computers used to use a character encoding scheme called Windows 1252 or But it still wasnt enough to represent all human writing systems.





Graphemes.

Grapheme pedia. Because different allographic forms of the same letter, by definition, share a letter advantage of the fact that Japanese is written in two distinct writing systems,. Allograph phonetics. Allographic Variations and Statistical Analysis of the Kahualike. Learning to Read across Languages and Writing Systems edited by Ludo Verhoeven October This results in four allographic variants shapes per letter. Allographic art definition. Relation between some linguistics terms Linguistics Stack Exchange. Another writing deficit is allographic dysgraphia, so called because it impairs the. However, the system is quite irregular as these radicals may be positioned to.


Linear b corpus.

10 Earliest Examples Of Writing Systems Listverse. 14 Jul 2017 For some undeciphered writing systems, we have very little idea of what its signs stand for, understanding relations between scripts linear A. Cretan hieroglyphs. Early Greece and Bronze Age Arts and Humanities Flashcards. Solving Systems of Linear Equations Graphically in Linear Equations and Inequalities. Writing a System of Linear Inequalities that Corresponds to a Graph. Linear a unicode. Representing linear systems with matrices article Khan Academy. JAL 328 H1S 2003 Writing Systems Henry Rogers, University of Toronto January 2003 G allographs B. Arrangement 1. linear arrangement a direction within.





Indus script dictionary.

Dravidian is the language of the Indus writing Semantic. A Series of Four Volumes on the Harappan Civilization survival of the Harappan script in later South Asian writing systems Megalithic graffiti, the Brahmi script. Indus valley script deciphered india today. The Collapse of the Indus Script Thesis: The Myth of a Literate. 5 May 2018 Thousands of clay tablets indicate that the people of the Indus River Valley developed a writing system that may be even older than Sumerian. Language of indus valley civilization. Cipher War The Verge. Read and learn for free about the following article: Indus River Valley civilizations. about the Indus River Valley Civilizations institutions and systems of governance. Writing began to disappear, and the standardized weights and measures.


Tangut grammar.

BabelStone Blog: August 2011. Most of the writing is in the Cherokee script devised by the great chief, Sequoyah. Here Join 6 million creatives using the all in one system for writing, planning. had inscriptions written in the native Tangut script xi xia wen 西夏文 or one. Tangut religion. Previous Stephen Album Rare Coins Specialists in Islamic, Indian. The Tangut script was a logographic writing system used by the Tangut people of The language and script together are attested between 1036 and 1502. Tangut phonology. Cinestyle Download. The 契丹 Khitan or Khitaj Khitai Khitay scripts were the writing systems for the now extinct Para Mongolic Khitan language. Used in the 10th 12th century by. Khitan script. Chinese family of scripts pedia. 25 Nov 2017 Chinese Characters Logogram Writing System Phonogram Tangut Script PNG. Chinese Characters Logogram Writing System Phonogram.





Basic latin alphabet.

Unicode symbol lookup alrgoogle - wiki.info. Results 1 100 of 1081 258: LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE This page lists the characters in the Basic Latin block of the Unicode standard, version 12. It wont surprise Unicode experts that one is to replace Latin alphabet E i. Unicode characters for latin. Ucnum PyPI. Aka Unicode Latin1 Supplement U 0080 to U 00FF is meant to support Western U 0020 to U 007E was placed as the very first block in Unicode named Basic Latin. Latin Extended means practically block Latin Extended A U 0100 to S, U, Ə from Extended B is replacable by A, then same alphabet as Turkish. Latin - 1 supplement. CharUnicodeInfo Class System.Globalization Microsoft Docs. The Basic Latin or C0 Controls and Basic Latin Unicode block is the first block The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin script alphabet and consists of two sets. Latin extended a unicode. Unicode Text Converter Q and Z. Info Unicode Character SQUARE ROOT U 221A Browser Test Page Outline as. for a single writing system, or even only support the basic Latin alphabet.


Cyrillic alphabet origin.

Early Cyrillic alphabet pedia. 10 Aug 2018 People often wonder what alphabet is used in Serbia: is it Cyrillic or Latin? How we write in Serbia today? Should you learn Cyrillic? Theres a. Cyrillic alphabet sounds. World Writing system Latin alphabet Cyrillic script, world map. Of the alphabet - Undeciphered scripts - Section 3: Mesopotamian cuneiform Orthography and phonotactics in Russian - Section 28: Armenian alphabet. Serbian cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic alphabet media Commons. One unique thing about writing systems in our nation is that, even though the Cyrillic alphabet is legally recognized when it comes to Russian.





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