★ BMW 801
The BMW 801 was a powerful German 41.8-litre engine is air-cooled 14-cylinder radial aircraft engine built by BMW and used in a number of German Luftwaffe aircraft of the Second world war. Production version with a two-row engine between 1.560 and 2.000 PS. It was the most produced radial engine of Germany during the Second world war with more than 61.000 reason.
In 801 was originally designed to replace the existing radial types in the German transport and utility aircraft. At that time, there was broad agreement among European designers that an inline engine is one of the requirements for structures with high performance characteristics due to its smaller frontal area and lower drag. Kurt Tank successfully installed on the BMW 801 to a new fighter design he was working on, and, as a consequence, the 801 became best known as the powerplant of the famous Focke-Wulf Fw 190. BMW 801 radial first that would today be assigned to the engine control unit: it Kommandogerat system engine control, took the work of several aircraft engine management control the parameters of the era, allowing proper operation of the engine with just a single throttle lever.
1.1. Design and development. Design predecessor. (Предшественником дизайн)
In 1930-e years, BMW acquired the license to build Pratt & Whitney "hornet". By the mid 30-ies, they have introduced an improved version, the BMW 132. BMW 132 was widely used, particularly in the Junkers Ju 52, which works on many models of life.
In 1935 the RLM funded prototypes of two much more radial structure, one of so 329, and another from BMW, the BMW 139. BMW designs used many components from the BMW 132 to create a two-row engine with 14 cylinders, supplying 1.529 1.550 HP 1.140 kW. After BMW bought in 1939, both projects were combined in the BMW 801, investigated problems arising in both projects.
The BMW 139 was originally intended to be used in the role similar to the other German radials, namely bombers and transport planes, but halfway through the program, the Focke-Wulf firms chief designer Kurt Tank suggested it for use in the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter project. Radial engines were rare in European construction, as they were considered too big frontal area for good optimization and not suitable for high-speed aircraft. They were the most popular in naval aviation, where they simplify maintenance and enhance reliability has been highly appreciated. Efforts to improve these designs led to the emergence of new designs fairing, which reduced concerns about resistance. Tank felt that attention to detail can result in a streamlined radial that would not suffer drag, and will compete with entrance.
The main challenge is providing cooling air over the cylinder heads, which usually requires a very large hole in the front of the plane. Tanks solution for the BMW 139 was to use a motor-driven fan for a large, see-through hollow propeller-spinner to open in the very front, blowing air past the engine cylinders, some of it is drawn through S-shaped duct over the radiator to cool the oil. However this system proved almost impossible to work with BMW 139, early prototypes of the FW 190 demonstrated terrible cooling problems. Although there were problems that needed to be corrected, since the engine is already quite outdated from the point of view of design, in 1938 BMW proposed an entirely new engine designed specifically for the cooling fan, which can be provided quickly to production.
1.2. Design and development. 801 emerges. (801 вырисовывается)
The new design was given the name BMW 801 after BMW was given a new unit "109-800" the engine number in the RLM to use after their merger with as. In 801 retained 139s older-style single-valve intake and exhaust, while most inline engines of that era were displaced or three as the Junkers did or four valves per cylinder, or in British use for their own alloy wheels, the valve. A few minor advances were taken into account in the design, including the use of sodium valves and direct fuel injection systems manufactured by Friedrich deckel AG Department in Munich.
The supercharger was rather basic in the early models, using a single-stage two-speed design directly related to the engine, unlike the DB 601s hydraulically clamped version, which led to rather limited performance at altitude, in accordance with its intended medium-altitude usage. One of the key promotion in the 801 was the aforementioned command Kommandogerat, mechanical-hydraulic device that automatically adjusted engine fuel flow, propeller pitch, supercharger setting, mixture and ignition timing in response to a single throttle lever, which greatly simplifies engine management. In Kommandogerat can be considered the predecessor of the engine control units used in many car engines of the late 20th and early 21st centuries combustion.
There is a considerable amount of aerodynamic work done on the engine and BMW developed forward hood, including the engine oil cooler on Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt LFA at volkenrode is the object, which leads to the conclusion that it is possible to reduce drag, equivalent to a 150-200 HP 110-150 kW, 150-200 PS. Also maximum use of positive air pressure, contributing to the cooling of cylinders, heads and other internal parts.
1.3. Design and development. 801A and 801B. (801А и 801B)
The first BMW 801As ran in April 1939, only six months after beginning the design work, starting production in 1940. In 801B supposed to be identical 801A, in addition to turning in a left-handed screw rotating in the opposite direction counterclockwise as seen from behind the engine with another transmission. And models have been designed for use in pairs on twin-engined designs, crossed out net torque and making the plane easier to handle. There is no evidence 801B never left the prototype stage. BMW 801A / B, PS was delivered 1.560 1.539 HP, 1.147 kW for take-off. The main applications of engines 801A / l include several variants of the Junkers Ju 88 and Dornier Do 217.
1.4. Design and development. 801C and 801L. (801C и 801L)
The BMW 801C was developed for use in single and multi-engined fighters and included a new hydraulic prop control and various changes intended to improve cooling, including cooling "gills" on the hood with the engine in place of the original slots. In the 801C was almost exclusively used in early variants of the Focke-Wulf FW 190А. The BMW 801L was an a model with a water resistant control mechanism introduced with the 801C engine. C and L models delivered the same power as the original model.
1.5. Design and development. 801D-2 and 801Г-2. (801D-2 и 801Г-2)
In the 801C was replaced with the BMW 801 D-2 series engines in early 1942, which ran on C2 / C3 100 octane fuel instead of the A / B / C / B4 total with 87 octane, boosting takeoff power to 1.700 HP 1.677 HP, 1.250 kW. BMW 801Г-2 and W-2 models D-2 engines modified for use in bomber roles with lower gear ratios for driving larger propellers, clockwise and counterclockwise, respectively. As with the 801B engine design, however, the 801H-2 engine did not leave the prototype stage.
D-2 models were tested with the system for injecting a 50-50 water-methanol mixture known as MW50 into the supercharger primarily for its anti-knock effect that allows the use of higher boost pressure. Secondary effects of engine cooling and charge cooling. There was a performance gain, but at the expense of engine life. It was replaced with a system of fuel injection instead of MW50, known as C3-injection, and used it until 1944. A serious fuel shortage in 1944 forced the installation of MW50 instead of the C3 injection. With MW50 increasing the inclusion of take-off power increased to 2.000 HP 1.470 kW, C3-injection was originally just for the use of low altitude, and increased takeoff power at 1870 HP. Later C3-injection system for low to medium use of height and raised take-off power to more than 1900 PS.
1.6. Design and development. The development of the supercharger. (Развитие нагнетатель)
The engine used in the more high altitude as a fighter, several attempts have been made to solve the problem of limited performance of the original supercharger. The BMW 801e was a modification of the D-2 using different gear ratios from 6:1 at low speed and 8.3:1 at high speed that is configured on a supercharger at high altitudes. Although take-off power has not changed, cruise power increased over 100 HP 75 kW and the "high power" modes to rise to almost 1.500 to 1.650 HP, and combat was also improved to 150 HP 110 kW. The electronic model was also used as the basis for the BMW 801R, which included a much more complex and powerful two-stage four-speed supercharger, as well as casting hydronalium cylinder head, strengthened crankshaft and pistons, and chromed cylinders and exhaust valves, it is assumed this version would produce over 2.000 HP kW 1.500, 2.000 HP, or more HP 2.600 1.900 kW, 2.600 PS with MW 50 methanol-water for injection.
Despite these improvements, the model is not widespread. Instead, further improvements to the basic e model LED to the BMW 801F, which dramatically improves the performance in all directions, with a running start, gradually increasing up to 2.400 HP 1.790 kW 801, the only German aircraft engine of an existing type, which was derived subtype, which can break through 1.500 kW maximum output barrier should be designed in a combat-reliable, well-proven military aircraft propulsion. It was planned to use a model with FW 190S, but the war ended before production began.
1.7. Design and development. The importance of further development. (Важность дальнейшего развития)
Not long after V-E day study Fedden mission to German aircraft engine development during the war years, shows that the firm BMW was required to conduct different levels of development priority not only in the fourteen-cylinder production 801 radial, but eighteen-cylinder BMW 802 with a displacement figure is close to the duplex cyclone, and liquid cooling, OCA General class, although more to 83.5 liters BMW 803 radial engines. In mid-June 1945, sir Roy Feddens team spoke with Dr. Bruno Bruckmann, head of BMW piston and jet engine development departments, and learned that the priorities for the trio of the aforementioned BMW radial engines were: first, 801 was necessary to prepare "its limits", with 802s finalizing the design and production of prototypes as an additional question, with a complex of 803 four-row radial-only to attention to its design-development. In contrast, the two closest allied equivalent to 801 in the configuration and displacement of the American Wright Cyclone two, a Soviet Shvetsov ASH-82 radial-ply – never it was necessary to develop for 1.500 kW output level 801 is required, and larger displacement, 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine in both the allied States us 46 l double Wasp and higher, almost 55 liters duplex-cyclone and possible 1945 premiere of the Soviet 58 l Shvetsov Ash-73 design, all three of which began their development before 1940, are processed should for even more power from larger displacement of adjacent radial aircraft engines.
1.8. Design and development. The development of turbocharger. (Развитие турбонагнетателя)
As soon as one of the results of the highest level of priority for a successful 801 projects for further development, a number of attempts were made to use turbochargers on the BMW 801 as well. The first used a modified BMW 801D to create the BMW 801J, delivering 1.810 1.785 PS HP, kW 1.331 is during takeoff and 1500 HP 1.103 kW at 12.200 m 40.000 feet, the altitude where the D was struggling with trying to produce 630 HP, 463 kW. The BMW 801e was also modified to create the BMW 801Q, delivering a superb 1.715 HP 1.261 kW at 12.200 m 40.000 feet, with a capacity of not existing allied radial engine of the same capacity can match.
The turbocharger was mounted behind the engine on a 30° forward tilt from vertical axis had a hollow turbine blade exhaust section and a photo from the logbook, it seems that the intercooler blocks, installed along the inner circumference of the rear hood, just behind the rear row of cylinders.
Not many of these motors have been in mass production because of high costs and various high-altitude designs based on them were forced to turn to other engines, typically the Junkers YuMO 213.
1.9. Design and development. Preserved and current examples. (Сохранились и нынешние примеры)
A significant number of BMW 801s exist in museums, some on display by themselves, some of them 20 are associated with surviving examples of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190S, which they had during the Second world war. First original FW 190 to be restored to flight status in the 21st century, 190А FW-5 discovered near St. Petersburg, Russia in 1989, with Werknummer 151 227 and has previously worked with JG 54 was restored to flying with its original BMW 801 powerplant. In 2011 he is once again airworthy and is located in Seattle, Washington, USA. The only survivor of the Ju 388, in the hands of the Udvar-Hazy Smithsonian institution, there are a couple BMW 801J turbocharged engines in the nacelles.
There are 801-ML 801L on display, mounted on a Dornier do 217 of the nacelle, essentially complete surviving Motoranlage complete powerplant, aviation Museum of New England, international airport, Bradley, Windsor locks, Connecticut. In addition, Ju 88R-1 night fighter in the tower of London, see photo above, also has a uniform set for BMW 801 radials.
2. Description. (Описание)
In 801 was a radial engine with two rows of seven cylinders. The cylinders were as the diameter and stroke of 156 mm in 6.1, giving a total capacity of 41.8 litres 2.550 in. EV, just a bit smaller than the American Wright Cyclone 14 radial double row of some 1.600 to 1.900 HP output. Unit including brackets weighed from 1.010 to 1.250 kg and was about 1.29 M 51 in diameter, depending on the model.
The BMW 801 was cooled forced air, magnesium alloy cooling fan, 10-bladed in the initial models, but 12-lobed in most engines. The fan is rotated at 1.72 times the crankshaft speed is 3.17 times the propeller speed. Air from the fan was blown up in the center of the engine, in front of the propeller gear housing, and the shape of the body and the motor to conduct air to the outside of the hood and through the cylinders. A set of slots or gills at the rear of the fairing allowed the hot air. This provides effective cooling although at the cost of around 70 HP 69 HP, 51.5 kW required to drive the fan when the aircraft was at low speed. Above 170 km / h 270 km / h, the fan absorbed little power directly as a vacuum effect of air past the air outlet to provide the required flow.
In the 801 used a relatively complex system, part of BMW-designed, system of selection of the forward hood to cool the oil. Ring oil cooler core was built in the BMW-provided forward the hood, just behind the fan. The outer part of the oil radiator core was in contact with the main hood of sedan, probably to act as a heat sink. In the composition developed by BMW forward hood, in front of the oil cooler was a ring of metal with a C-shaped cross section, with the outer lip lying close to the edge of the hood and on the inner side with the inner side of the oil cooler core. Together with a metal ring and cowling formed an S-shaped airflow path, with the oil coolers kernel contained between them. Airflow past the gap between the cowl and outer lip of the metal ring produced a vacuum effect that pulled air from the front of the engine outward and forward in the front inner fairing area just behind the fan, flowing forward through the oil cooler core to separate the air path from the back-the direction of flow of cooled engines the cylinders to provide cooling for the 801s oil. The air flow rate through the core can be adjusted by moving a metal ring slightly forward or backward to open or close the gap.
The causes of this complex system was three times. One is to abandon any extra aerodynamic drag that exposed oil cooler will produce, in this case, eliminating unnecessary drag coefficient by enclosing it in forward engine cowl. The second was the warm air before it flowed into the oil coolers round shape of the core to help warm up the oil at startup. Finally, by placing the oil cooler behind the fan, cooling occurs even while the plane was parked. The disadvantage of this design was that the oil cooler was in an extremely vulnerable place, and the metal ring is becoming increasingly armored as the war progressed.
2.1. Description. Engine mounting formats. (Установка двигателя форматов)
The design of the front of the car BMW 801s were the key to its proper cooling, which BMW designed and built themselves and be supplied with the engine. The design evolved throughout the war, including the expansion engine mounts that allowed for large cooling gills. This is a factory hood also improved the ease of engine replacement in field conditions better "bond" BMW 801 radial engine, with as many of its subsidiary systems as possible simultaneously with the replacement of the engine, in contrast to open or delete "individual" fairing attached to the fuselage of the aircraft.
Engines typically delivered from BMW complete in their hoods, ready to be bolted to the front of the plane or the nacelle, since 1942 as Motoranlage m 1944 / 1945 how Triebwerksanlage T. Motoranlage was in its original form interchangeable Kraftei, or "power-egg", complete power plant concept used in many German military aircraft. It is most often used in two-and multi-engined designs, with some external add-ons. A more complete Triebwerksanlage format for aggregation consolidated more engines required the subordinate systems beyond that previously Motoranlage did, plus some external mountings, such as the entire exhaust system including the turbocharger, if fitted as part of the design as completely interchangeable unit. M and T formats are also used in various embedded systems, like Daimler-Benz DB 603 used for inline-engine version of the Do 217 bomber, and the BV 238 giant flying boats, Junkers YuMO 213 power is used for subsequent brands Ju 88 multirole aircraft.
M and T unitized engine formats added additional designation suffixes that are specifically for 801 radial, and possibly others, does not always correspond to the letter suffix that places a little radial engine that is used for specific installations, complete, confusing the names of the 801 series engine subtypes significantly. These pointers suffix initially referred to these complete kits and their "bare" engine counterparts almost interchangeably. A, B and L models were known logically as Motoranlage the style of MA, MB and ML engines in this form, but the total D-2 was known as the mg. As the war wore on, the increasing confusion, the model E was taken to Triebwerksanlage type Tg or th, seemingly suggesting a relation to the G and H engines, but in fact those were delivered as the TL and TP. It is quite common to see the turbocharged versions referred to only with the t for a more complete installation, unified Triebwerksanlage, in particular, the most infamous of all TJ for BMW 801J radial subtype, and the TQ models, further confusing the problem with the turbo.
3. Options. (Варианты)BMW 801 A, C, L B 1.560 PS 1.539 hp, 1.147 kW BMW 801 D-2, Q-2, G-2, H-2 1.700 PS 1.677 hp, 1.250 kW BMW 801 E,S 2.000 PS 1.973 hp, 1.471 kW BMW 801 F 2.400 PS 2.367 hp, 1.765 kW, development halted by the end of the war
4. Application. (Приложение)
- Junkers Ju 188. (Юнкерс Ju 188)
- Blohm & Voss BV 144.
- Junkers Ju 88. (Юнкерс Ju 88)
- Dornier Do 217. (Дорнье Do 217)
- Junkers Ju 388. (Юнкерс Ju 388)
- Focke-Wulf Fw 191. (Фокке-Вульф Fw 191)
- Junkers Ju 390. (Юнкерс Ju 390)
- Junkers Ju 290. (Юнкерс Ju 290)
- The Junkers Ju 288 as temporary planting in place intended Jumo 222.
- Messerschmitt Me 264 replacement for the original Jumo 211 engine plumbing.
- Blohm & Voss BV 141.
- Heinkel he 277 as intended for the role of the Amerikabomber.
- Focke-Wulf Fw 190. (Фокке-Вульф Fw 190)
5. Technical characteristics of BMW 801. (Технические характеристики автомобилей BMW 801)
General characteristics. (Общие характеристики)
- Diameter: 1.290 mm 51.
- Length: 79 2.006 mm.
- Diameter: 156 mm 6.15 in.
- Type: 14-cylinder supercharged two-row radial air-cooled engine.
- Stroke: 156 mm 6.15 in.
- Dry weight: 1.012 kg 2.231 LB.
- Displacement: 41.8 liters in3 2.560.
- Valvetrain: one intake and one sodium-cooled exhaust valves per cylinder.
- Supercharger: gear-driven single-stage two-speed.
- Cooling system: air-cooled with oil cooler integrated into front cowl.
- Fuel system: direct fuel injection.
- Specific power: 27.44 kW / l 0.60 HP / in3.
- Output power: 1.539 1.560 PS HP, 1.147 kW at 2.700 rpm for takeoff at sea level.
- Compression ratio: 6.5:1. (Коэффициент сжатия: 6.5:1)
- Specific fuel consumption: 0.308 kg / kWh 0.506 kg / HP h).
- Power-to-weight ratio: 1.13 kW / kg 0.69 HP / lb.
6. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Gunston, Bill 2006. World encyclopedia of Aero engines: from the pioneers to the present day 5th ed. Stroud, UK: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-4479s.
- Bingham, Victor 1998. Main engines, aviation piston of the Second world war. Shrewsbury, UK: good book. ISBN 1-84037-012-2.
- Christopher, John 2013. The race for Hitlers x-planes: Britains 1945 mission to capture secret Luftwaffe technology. Stroud, UK: history press. ISBN 978-0-7524-6457-2.
- Sheffield, F August 13, 1942. "B. M. W. 801A" in PDF format. Flight.
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